AngularJS 源码分析3

本文接着上一篇讲

回顾

上次说到了rootScope里的$watch方法中的解析监控表达式,即而引出了对parse的分析,今天我们接着这里继续挖代码.

$watch续

先上一块$watch代码

$watch: function(watchExp, listener, objectEquality) {
        var scope = this,
            get = compileToFn(watchExp, 'watch'),
            array = scope.$$watchers,
            watcher = {
              fn: listener,
              last: initWatchVal,
              get: get,
              exp: watchExp,
              eq: !!objectEquality
            };

        lastDirtyWatch = null;

        // in the case user pass string, we need to compile it, do we really need this ?
        if (!isFunction(listener)) {
          var listenFn = compileToFn(listener || noop, 'listener');
          watcher.fn = function(newVal, oldVal, scope) {listenFn(scope);};
        }

        if (typeof watchExp == 'string' && get.constant) {
          var originalFn = watcher.fn;
          watcher.fn = function(newVal, oldVal, scope) {
            originalFn.call(this, newVal, oldVal, scope);
            arrayRemove(array, watcher);
          };
        }

        if (!array) {
          array = scope.$$watchers = [];
        }
        // we use unshift since we use a while loop in $digest for speed.
        // the while loop reads in reverse order.
        array.unshift(watcher);

        return function deregisterWatch() {
          arrayRemove(array, watcher);
          lastDirtyWatch = null;
        };
      }

这里的get = compileToFn(watchExp, 'watch'),上篇已经分析完了,这里返回的是一个执行表达式的函数,接着往下看,这里初始化了一个watcher对象,用来保存一些监听相关的信息,简单的说明一下

  • fn, 代表监听函数,当监控表达式新旧不相等时会执行此函数
  • last, 保存最后一次发生变化的监控表达式的值
  • get, 保存一个监控表达式对应的函数,目的是用来获取表达式的值然后用来进行新旧对比的
  • exp, 保存一个原始的监控表达式
  • eq, 保存$watch函数的第三个参数,表示是否进行深度比较

然后会检查传递进来的监听参数是否为函数,如果是一个有效的字符串,则通过parse来解析生成一个函数,否则赋值为一个noop占位函数,最后生成一个包装函数,函数体的内容就是执行刚才生成的监听函数,默认传递当前作用域.

接着会检查监控表达式是否为字符串并且执行表达式的constant为true,代表这个字符串是一个常量,那么,系统在处理这种监听的时候,执行完一次监听函数之后就会删除这个$watch.最后往当前作用域里的$$watchers数组头中添加$watch信息,注意这里的返回值,利用JS的闭包保留了当前的watcher,然后返回一个函数,这个就是用来删除监听用的.

$eval

这个$eval也是挺方便的函数,假如你想直接在程序里执行一个字符串的话,那么可以这么用

$scope.name = '2';
$scope.$eval('1+name'); // ==> 会输出12

大家来看看它的函数体

return $parse(expr)(this, locals);

其实就是通过parse来解析成一个执行表达式函数,然后传递当前作用域以及额外的参数,返回这个执行表达式函数的值

$evalAsync

evalAsync函数的作用就是延迟执行表达式,并且执行完不管是否异常,触发dirty check.

 if (!$rootScope.$$phase && !$rootScope.$$asyncQueue.length) {
          $browser.defer(function() {
            if ($rootScope.$$asyncQueue.length) {
              $rootScope.$digest();
            }
          });
        }

this.$$asyncQueue.push({scope: this, expression: expr});

可以看到当前作用域内部有一个$$asyncQueue异步队列,保存着所有需要延迟执行的表达式,此处的表达式可以是字符串或者函数,因为这个表达式最终会调用$eval方法,注意这里调用了$browser服务的defer方法,从ng->browser.js源码里可以看到,其实这里就是调用setTimeout来实现的.

self.defer = function(fn, delay) {
    var timeoutId;
    outstandingRequestCount++;
    timeoutId = setTimeout(function() {
      delete pendingDeferIds[timeoutId];
      completeOutstandingRequest(fn);
    }, delay || 0);
    pendingDeferIds[timeoutId] = true;
    return timeoutId;
  };

上面的代码主要是延迟执行函数,另外pendingDeferIds对象保存所有setTimeout返回的id,这个会在self.defer.cancel这里可以取消执行延迟执行.

digest方法之前,还有一个方法要说说

$postDigest

这个方法跟evalAsync不同的时,它不会主动触发digest方法,只是往postDigestQueue队列中增加执行表达式,它会在digest体内最后执行,相当于在触发dirty check之后,可以执行别的一些逻辑.

this.$$postDigestQueue.push(fn);

下面我们来重点说说digest方法

$digest

digest方法是dirty check的核心,主要思路是先执行$$asyncQueue队列中的表达式,然后开启一个loop来的执行所有的watch里的监听函数,前提是前后两次的值是否不相等,假如ttl超过系统默认值,则dirth check结束,最后执行$$postDigestQueue队列里的表达式.

$digest: function() {
        var watch, value, last,
            watchers,
            asyncQueue = this.$$asyncQueue,
            postDigestQueue = this.$$postDigestQueue,
            length,
            dirty, ttl = TTL,
            next, current, target = this,
            watchLog = [],
            logIdx, logMsg, asyncTask;

        beginPhase('$digest');

        lastDirtyWatch = null;

        do { // "while dirty" loop
          dirty = false;
          current = target;

          while(asyncQueue.length) {
            try {
              asyncTask = asyncQueue.shift();
              asyncTask.scope.$eval(asyncTask.expression);
            } catch (e) {
              clearPhase();
              $exceptionHandler(e);
            }
            lastDirtyWatch = null;
          }

          traverseScopesLoop:
          do { // "traverse the scopes" loop
            if ((watchers = current.$$watchers)) {
              // process our watches
              length = watchers.length;
              while (length--) {
                try {
                  watch = watchers[length];
                  // Most common watches are on primitives, in which case we can short
                  // circuit it with === operator, only when === fails do we use .equals
                  if (watch) {
                    if ((value = watch.get(current)) !== (last = watch.last) &&
                        !(watch.eq
                            ? equals(value, last)
                            : (typeof value == 'number' && typeof last == 'number'
                               && isNaN(value) && isNaN(last)))) {
                      dirty = true;
                      lastDirtyWatch = watch;
                      watch.last = watch.eq ? copy(value) : value;
                      watch.fn(value, ((last === initWatchVal) ? value : last), current);
                      if (ttl < 5) {
                        logIdx = 4 - ttl;
                        if (!watchLog[logIdx]) watchLog[logIdx] = [];
                        logMsg = (isFunction(watch.exp))
                            ? 'fn: ' + (watch.exp.name || watch.exp.toString())
                            : watch.exp;
                        logMsg += '; newVal: ' + toJson(value) + '; oldVal: ' + toJson(last);
                        watchLog[logIdx].push(logMsg);
                      }
                    } else if (watch === lastDirtyWatch) {
                      // If the most recently dirty watcher is now clean, short circuit since the remaining watchers
                      // have already been tested.
                      dirty = false;
                      break traverseScopesLoop;
                    }
                  }
                } catch (e) {
                  clearPhase();
                  $exceptionHandler(e);
                }
              }
            }

            // Insanity Warning: scope depth-first traversal
            // yes, this code is a bit crazy, but it works and we have tests to prove it!
            // this piece should be kept in sync with the traversal in $broadcast
            if (!(next = (current.$$childHead ||
                (current !== target && current.$$nextSibling)))) {
              while(current !== target && !(next = current.$$nextSibling)) {
                current = current.$parent;
              }
            }
          } while ((current = next));

          // `break traverseScopesLoop;` takes us to here

          if((dirty || asyncQueue.length) && !(ttl--)) {
            clearPhase();
            throw $rootScopeMinErr('infdig',
                '{0} $digest() iterations reached. Aborting!\n' +
                'Watchers fired in the last 5 iterations: {1}',
                TTL, toJson(watchLog));
          }

        } while (dirty || asyncQueue.length);

        clearPhase();

        while(postDigestQueue.length) {
          try {
            postDigestQueue.shift()();
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e);
          }
        }
      }

通过上面的代码,可以看出,核心就是两个loop,外loop保证所有的model都能检测到,内loop则是真实的检测每个watch,watch.get就是计算监控表达式的值,这个用来跟旧值进行对比,假如不相等,则执行监听函数

注意这里的watch.eq这是是否深度检查的标识,equals方法是angular.js里的公共方法,用来深度对比两个对象,这里的不相等有一个例外,那就是NaN ===NaN,因为这个永远都是false,所以这里加了检查

!(watch.eq
    ? equals(value, last)
    : (typeof value == 'number' && typeof last == 'number'
       && isNaN(value) && isNaN(last)))

比较完之后,把新值传给watch.last,然后执行watch.fn也就是监听函数,传递三个参数,分别是:最新计算的值,上次计算的值(假如是第一次的话,则传递新值),最后一个参数是当前作用域实例,这里有一个设置外loop的条件值,那就是dirty = true,也就是说只要内loop执行了一次watch,则外loop还要接着执行,这是为了保证所有的model都能监测一次,虽然这个有点浪费性能,不过超过ttl设置的值后,dirty check会强制关闭,并抛出异常

if((dirty || asyncQueue.length) && !(ttl--)) {
    clearPhase();
    throw $rootScopeMinErr('infdig',
        '{0} $digest() iterations reached. Aborting!\n' +
        'Watchers fired in the last 5 iterations: {1}',
        TTL, toJson(watchLog));
}

这里的watchLog日志对象是在内loop里,当ttl低于5的时候开始记录的

if (ttl < 5) {
    logIdx = 4 - ttl;
    if (!watchLog[logIdx]) watchLog[logIdx] = [];
    logMsg = (isFunction(watch.exp))
        ? 'fn: ' + (watch.exp.name || watch.exp.toString())
        : watch.exp;
    logMsg += '; newVal: ' + toJson(value) + '; oldVal: ' + toJson(last);
    watchLog[logIdx].push(logMsg);
}

当检查完一个作用域内的所有watch之后,则开始深度遍历当前作用域的子级或者父级,虽然这有些影响性能,就像这里的注释写的那样yes, this code is a bit crazy

// Insanity Warning: scope depth-first traversal
// yes, this code is a bit crazy, but it works and we have tests to prove it!
// this piece should be kept in sync with the traversal in $broadcast
if (!(next = (current.$$childHead ||
      (current !== target && current.$$nextSibling)))) {
    while(current !== target && !(next = current.$$nextSibling)) {
      current = current.$parent;
    }
}

上面的代码其实就是不断的查找当前作用域的子级,没有子级,则开始查找兄弟节点,最后查找它的父级节点,是一个深度遍历查找.只要next有值,则内loop则一直执行

while ((current = next))

不过内loop也有跳出的情况,那就是当前watch跟最后一次检查的watch相等时就退出内loop.

else if (watch === lastDirtyWatch) {
    // If the most recently dirty watcher is now clean, short circuit since the remaining watchers
    // have already been tested.
    dirty = false;
    break traverseScopesLoop;
}

注意这个内loop同时也是一个label(标签)语句,这个可以在loop中执行跳出操作就像上面的break

正常执行完两个loop之后,清除当前的阶段标识clearPhase();,然后开始执行postDigestQueue队列里的表达式.

while(postDigestQueue.length) {
    try {
      postDigestQueue.shift()();
    } catch (e) {
      $exceptionHandler(e);
    }
}

接下来说说,用的也比较多的$apply方法

$apply

这个方法一般用在,不在ng的上下文中执行js代码的情况,比如原生的DOM事件中执行想改变ng中某些model的值,这个时候就要使用$apply方法了

$apply: function(expr) {
    try {
      beginPhase('$apply');
      return this.$eval(expr);
    } catch (e) {
      $exceptionHandler(e);
    } finally {
      clearPhase();
      try {
        $rootScope.$digest();
      } catch (e) {
        $exceptionHandler(e);
        throw e;
      }
    }
}

代码中,首先让当前阶段标识为$apply,这个可以防止使用$apply方法时检查是否已经在这个阶段了,然后就是执行$eval方法, 这个方法上面有讲到,最后执行$digest方法,来使ng中的M或者VM改变.

接下来说说scopeevent模块,它的api跟一般的event事件模块比较像,提供有$on,$emit,$broadcast,这三个很实用的方法

$on

这个方法是用来定义事件的,这里用到了两个实例变量$$listeners, $$listenerCount,分别用来保存事件,以及事件数量计数

$on: function(name, listener) {
        var namedListeners = this.$$listeners[name];
        if (!namedListeners) {
          this.$$listeners[name] = namedListeners = [];
        }
        namedListeners.push(listener);

        var current = this;
        do {
          if (!current.$$listenerCount[name]) {
            current.$$listenerCount[name] = 0;
          }
          current.$$listenerCount[name]++;
        } while ((current = current.$parent));

        var self = this;
        return function() {
          namedListeners[indexOf(namedListeners, listener)] = null;
          decrementListenerCount(self, 1, name);
        };
      }

分析上面的代码,可以看出每当定义一个事件的时候,都会向$$listeners对象中添加以name为key的属性,值就是事件执行函数,注意这里有个事件计数,只要有父级,则也给父级的$$listenerCount添加以name为key的属性,并且值+1,这个$$listenerCount
会在广播事件的时候用到,最后这个方法返回一个取消事件的函数,先设置$$listeners中以name为key的值为null,然后调用decrementListenerCount来使该事件计数-1.

$emit

这个方法是用来触发$on定义的事件,原理就是loop$$listeners属性,检查是否有值,有的话,则执行,然后依次往上检查父级,这个方法有点类似冒泡执行事件.

$emit: function(name, args) {
        var empty = [],
            namedListeners,
            scope = this,
            stopPropagation = false,
            event = {
              name: name,
              targetScope: scope,
              stopPropagation: function() {stopPropagation = true;},
              preventDefault: function() {
                event.defaultPrevented = true;
              },
              defaultPrevented: false
            },
            listenerArgs = concat([event], arguments, 1),
            i, length;

        do {
          namedListeners = scope.$$listeners[name] || empty;
          event.currentScope = scope;
          for (i=0, length=namedListeners.length; i<length; i++) {

            // if listeners were deregistered, defragment the array
            if (!namedListeners[i]) {
              namedListeners.splice(i, 1);
              i--;
              length--;
              continue;
            }
            try {
              //allow all listeners attached to the current scope to run
              namedListeners[i].apply(null, listenerArgs);
            } catch (e) {
              $exceptionHandler(e);
            }
          }
          //if any listener on the current scope stops propagation, prevent bubbling
          if (stopPropagation) return event;
          //traverse upwards
          scope = scope.$parent;
        } while (scope);

        return event;
      }

上面的代码比较简单,首先定义一个事件参数,然后开启一个loop,只要scope有值,则一直执行,这个方法的事件链是一直向上传递的,不过当在事件函数执行stopPropagation方法,就会停止向上传递事件.

$broadcast

这个是$emit的升级版,广播事件,即能向上传递,也能向下传递,还能平级传递,核心原理就是利用深度遍历当前作用域

$broadcast: function(name, args) {
    var target = this,
        current = target,
        next = target,
        event = {
          name: name,
          targetScope: target,
          preventDefault: function() {
            event.defaultPrevented = true;
          },
          defaultPrevented: false
        },
        listenerArgs = concat([event], arguments, 1),
        listeners, i, length;

    //down while you can, then up and next sibling or up and next sibling until back at root
    while ((current = next)) {
      event.currentScope = current;
      listeners = current.$$listeners[name] || [];
      for (i=0, length = listeners.length; i<length; i++) {
        // if listeners were deregistered, defragment the array
        if (!listeners[i]) {
          listeners.splice(i, 1);
          i--;
          length--;
          continue;
        }

        try {
          listeners[i].apply(null, listenerArgs);
        } catch(e) {
          $exceptionHandler(e);
        }
      }

      // Insanity Warning: scope depth-first traversal
      // yes, this code is a bit crazy, but it works and we have tests to prove it!
      // this piece should be kept in sync with the traversal in $digest
      // (though it differs due to having the extra check for $$listenerCount)
      if (!(next = ((current.$$listenerCount[name] && current.$$childHead) ||
          (current !== target && current.$$nextSibling)))) {
        while(current !== target && !(next = current.$$nextSibling)) {
          current = current.$parent;
        }
      }
    }

    return event;
}

代码跟$emit差不多,只是跟它不同的时,这个是不断的取next值,而next的值则是通过深度遍历它的子级节点,兄弟节点,父级节点,依次查找可用的以name为key的事件.注意这里的注释,跟$digest里的差不多,都是通过深度遍历查找,所以$broadcast方法也不能常用,性能不是很理想

$destroy

这个方法是用来销毁当前作用域,代码主要是清空当前作用域内的一些实例属性,以免执行digest,$emit,$broadcast时会关联到

$destroy: function() {
    // we can't destroy the root scope or a scope that has been already destroyed
    if (this.$$destroyed) return;
    var parent = this.$parent;

    this.$broadcast('$destroy');
    this.$$destroyed = true;
    if (this === $rootScope) return;

    forEach(this.$$listenerCount, bind(null, decrementListenerCount, this));

    // sever all the references to parent scopes (after this cleanup, the current scope should
    // not be retained by any of our references and should be eligible for garbage collection)
    if (parent.$$childHead == this) parent.$$childHead = this.$$nextSibling;
    if (parent.$$childTail == this) parent.$$childTail = this.$$prevSibling;
    if (this.$$prevSibling) this.$$prevSibling.$$nextSibling = this.$$nextSibling;
    if (this.$$nextSibling) this.$$nextSibling.$$prevSibling = this.$$prevSibling;


    // All of the code below is bogus code that works around V8's memory leak via optimized code
    // and inline caches.
    //
    // see:
    // - https://code.google.com/p/v8/issues/detail?id=2073#c26
    // - https://github.com/angular/angular.js/issues/6794#issuecomment-38648909
    // - https://github.com/angular/angular.js/issues/1313#issuecomment-10378451

    this.$parent = this.$$nextSibling = this.$$prevSibling = this.$$childHead =
        this.$$childTail = this.$root = null;

    // don't reset these to null in case some async task tries to register a listener/watch/task
    this.$$listeners = {};
    this.$$watchers = this.$$asyncQueue = this.$$postDigestQueue = [];

    // prevent NPEs since these methods have references to properties we nulled out
    this.$destroy = this.$digest = this.$apply = noop;
    this.$on = this.$watch = function() { return noop; };
}

代码比较简单,先是通过foreach来清空$$listenerCount实例属性,然后再设置$parent,$$nextSibling,$$prevSibling,$$childHead,$$childTail,$rootnull,清空$$listeners,$$watchers,$$asyncQueue,$$postDigestQueue,最后就是重罢方法为noop占位函数

总结

rootScope说完了,这是个使用比例非常高的核心provider,分析的比较简单,有啥错误的地方,希望大家能够指出来,大家一起学习学习,下次有空接着分析别的.

欢迎转载,转载请注明作者和出处:feenan